Work packages – University of Copenhagen

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UK IGN > Research > Landscape Architecture and Planning > Landscape Technology > The Water Green Africa project > Work packages

Work packages

WP1: Urban ecology, green spaces; use and livelihoods
WP2: Stormwater management
WP3: Planning and governance
WP4: Research capacity building and management

WP1: Urban ecology, green spaces; use and livelihoods

WP leader: Kumelachew Yeshitela (kumeyesh@googlemail.com), EiABC

Objective and tasks

The WP1 will explore the use, functions, and livelihood activities in the urban green spaces and identify opportunities and barriers for integrating stormwater management in the urban landscape.

The tasks are:

  1. To identify and map the green structure and its temporal development and develop relevant typologies of green areas according to ecosystems functions and land uses at a city level 
  2. To investigate the importance of livelihood activities in the urban landscape and its significance and explore how people experience their livelihood activities as threatened by or depending on flooding
  3. Explore and determine the interrelation between the different land uses and how they influence ecosystem functions and stormwater management
  4. Identify opportunities and barriers for integrating stormwater management in the landscape

Methods and scope

The WP has three interrelated scopes, i.e. a structural, a social and an ecological scope. The structural city level investigation and overview of the urban landscape and categorization into typologies will methodologically be conducted based on aerial photos, maps, field surveying and verification, interviews and GIS. The investigation into livelihoods also takes a qualitative approach such as interviews, questionnaires and focus groups in order to grasp the perceptions and the livelihoods of people and the experience of threats and possibilities related to urban water resources with a case in the pilot site. Analysis of the interactions between ecosystem functions and land uses will be conducted using an ecological approach to understand, for example, how different plants/crops/uses can reduce/increase run-off intensity, erosion, water quality, etc. with an outset in case pilot sites.

WP2:  Stormwater management

WP leader: Antje Backhaus (abac@life.ku.dk), IGN

Objective and tasks

The objective of this WP is to assess the stormwater management regime in Dar es Salaam and Addis Ababa, and design and test local options for landscape based stormwater management in two communities in the two case cities.

The tasks are:

  1. To identify existing urban stormwater and flood risk management practices in Addis Ababa and Dar es Salaam
  2. To determine present and future urban stormwater management challenges in Addis Ababa and Dar es Salaam and their underlying reasons and assess the local coping capacity 
  3. To develop, design and test in more detail the options for landscape based stormwater management in two community sites within the case cities
  4. To compare biophysical, structural and institutional options and limitations for landscape based stormwater management in Addis Ababa and Dar es Salaam
  5. To develop strategies for landscape based stormwater management practices in the two cities; city level strategies and strategies and plans for the pilot sites

Methods and scope

The outset will involve a review of existing data on local climate and climate change aspects, combined with a GIS based analysis of present and future flood prone areas in the two cities, as well as aerial photos and field surveys to support arguments for causes and impacts. A participatory inventory will be carried out across stakeholder groups in Addis Ababa and Dar es Salaam and in the pilot sites with the aim of indentifying existing and prospective coping strategies for the cities and sites.

The design of landscape based stormwater management solutions will use a research-by-design (i.e. research-through-design) (Backhaus et al., 2011) approach carried out by researchers possibly in collaboration with a team of local students and/or professional designers. In the two case communities, local residents as well as city officials will be invited to take part in a participatory design process in order to develop integrated solutions that meet bottom-up and top-down perspectives and rationales, as previously done in a Danish context by Fryd et al. (2010).

WP3: Planning and governance

WP leader: Wilbard Kombe (kombewilbard@yahoo.com), IHSS

Objective and tasks

The WP will identify the opportunities or “open doors” and possible existing barriers, from an institutional framework and decision-making point of view, for the adoption and implementation of inclusive landscape based stormwater management and its incoorperation in urban planning for the two cities.

The tasks are:

  1. At city level to investigate and outline the institutional set-up and governance of stormwater management, flood risks and green area management, the linkages between them and how they are integrated into urban planning
  2. At community level (in pilot sites) to explore the web of institutional tenure arrangements, their capacity and modalities for operation relevant in the management of the urban landscape and stormwater and floods and their linkages with higher levels of governance and urban planning.
  3. To design and facilitate a stakeholder process surrounding the research-by-design activities taking place in the pilot sites
  4. To identify main challenges and barriers from an institutional and decision making point of view on the implementation of landscape based stormwater management and its integration into urban planning.

Methods and scope

The institutional analysis will work both at city and community level and will use document studies, interviews and participatory research methods such as community forum, community mapping and focus groups as main methods. Inspiration for designing the institutional and governance analysis comes eg. from the Institutional Analysis and Development (IAD) Framework – tested in urban governance of public resources/goods and services (Ostrom 1990; 1996; 2009) possibly in combination with asset-adaptation framework of analysis (Moser and Satterthwaite 2010) and political interaction frameworks (Harris 2002). At city level drawing up the institutional framework, the institutions and actors involved in the management of storm water, flood risks and green areas will be identified, the coordination and linkages between them assessed and the levels of governance and the power relations there of. The community level takes a point of departure in the local coping strategies (identified in WP2) in the case site to flood risk and the green area use (WP1) and explores the institutional set-up relevant locally, tenure arrangement and access and the linkages with the higher levels of governance and the larger institutional framework identified above. The specific analyses will serve as input for the development of strategies for landscape based stormwater management and its incorporation in urban planning and the design and facilitation of the user driven stakeholder process surrounding the design workshop in the case site and for the strategy making.

WP4: Research capacity building and management

WP leader: Lise Herslund (lihe@life.ku.dk), IGN

Objective and tasks

The WP will facilitate the interaction between the thematic WPs, the research capacity building in South partner institutions, the PhD studies in particular, and is responsible for the overall project management.

The tasks are:

  1. To facilitate and ensure research capacity building by facilitating knowledge exchange between innovation systems in Addis Ababa, Dar es Salaam, and Denmark 
  2. To ensure that PhD programmes are carried out and successfully completed
  3. To strengthen ties between research institutions, city administration and case communities in Addis Ababa and Dar es Salaam (establishment, continuous meetings/activities in city stakeholder workshops and city working groups, coordination of inputs and facilitation at the case site event, coordinate and facilitate the development of city strategies and case site plans).
  4. To coordinate activities across cities and work packages though dialogue on progress and results, WP and city progress reporting and communication (yearly project conferences, master course development and incorporation in curricles at partner institutions etc.)
  5. To undertake research management by overseeing and communicating project progress and budget expenses to internal and external partners, therein reporting to the FFU (project management meetings, mid-term evaluation etc.)

Methods and scope

The WP is core responsible for the PhD study programmes. A total of six PhD students are enrolled, i.e. three in Addis Ababa and three in Dar es Salaam. The six PhD studies all take a starting point in urban stormwater management but works at different scales and bridges the WP themes in different ways. PhD1 and PhD4, as well as PhD2 and PhD5 do comparable studies in their respective cities whereas PhD3 and PhD6 explores different specific options for LSM. PhD1 and PhD 4 look into the spatial and structural aspects of LSM mainly at a city scale and combines the structural analysis and mapping of green space, flood risks and stormwater management with urban planning and institutional analysis in order to understand what LSM is and what it could be. The effects of land use change and urban spatial configuration on urban water supply and flood mitigation will be quantified (e.g. by using GIS tools).

PhD2 and PhD 4 do an inventory into the land use, tenure, water and food nexus. With an outset in the multiple uses and conflicting interests in formal and informal green areas the study links the challenges and potentials in utilizing water for food production with the barriers and possibilities from an institutional point of view. PhD3 and PhD6 investigate and test specific topics and options for the development of water resilient cities. The PhD3 will focus on eco-technological options for decentralized water quality control. PhD6 will focus on the design and alteration of urban landscapes and the terrain.

The PhD candidates will enrol at their home institution and spent 2 x 13 weeks at IGN for courses and supervision. In 2014 the PhDs will spend 13 weeks taking PhD courses at IGN. In 2016 the PhDs will spend 13 weeks in Denmark while writing up on their theses.