B21st - Biomass for the 21st Century
PROJECT IS COMPLETED
Project period: 2012-2017
B21st was an advanced technology platform that focused on Danish research within the production and use of biomass for maritime fuels and chemicals.
The core competence of the B21st platform was to advance the use of biomass resources and technologies to go beyond their current use for heat, power and ethanol towards future areas of chemicals and maritime fuels.
The main commercial and strategic drivers for the platform were:
- the global need to reduce dependence on fossil resources whilst enhancing energy security
- reducing the current high emission levels of greenhouse gases.
Large business potential for Danish industry and scientific community
The advanced research conducted in B21st has given the Danish industry a large potential for providing the global market with economically and environmentally viable technologies for advanced processing of biomass to fuels and chemicals.
The approach and concept of B21st focused on the integrated and cross-disciplinary development of biomass- production, technology and applications to secure economic and environmental sustainability.
The project aimed to develop technology and infrastructure for the future expansion of biomass into a biorefinery sector for fuels and chemicals. The success criteria were:
- To build an advanced science and technology biofuel platform that bridged the sectors of biomass resources, energy production and end users.
- To expand the biomass feedstocks and conversion technologies to new markets for heavy and medium grade shipping fuels and chemical building blocks.
- To enable Danish biomass and bioenergy technology to expand and develop a biorefinery industrial sector for a global renewable technology market.
Bellucci A, Tondelli A, Fangel JU, Torp AM, Xu X, Willats WGT, et al. (2017) Genome-wide association mapping in winter barley for grain yield and culm cell wall polymer content using the high-throughput CoMPP technique. PLoS ONE 12(3):e0173313. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.
Andrea Bellucci, Alessandro Tondelli, Jonatan U. Fangel, Anna Maria Torp, Xin Xu, William G. T. Willats, Andrew Flavell, Luigi Cattivelli, Søren K. Rasmussen (2017): Genome-wide association mapping in winter barley for grain yield and culm cell wall polymer content using the high-throughput CoMPP technique. PlosOne.
Le, Duy Michael; Nielsen, Anders Damgaard; Sorensen, Hanne R; Meyer, Anne S. Characterisation of authentic lignin biorefinery samples by fourier 1 transform infrared spectroscopy and determination of the chemical 2 formula for lignin.
Le, Duy Michael; Sorensen, Hanne R; Meyer, Anne S (2017) Pre-process desilication of wheat straw with citrate. ; Process Biochemistry 2017.
Le, Duy Michael; Sorensen, Hanne R; Meyer, Anne S; (2017). Elemental analysis of various biomass solid fractions in biorefineries by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry. Biomass and Bioenergy, 97, pp 70-76.
Baldwin, L., Glazowska, S., Mravec, J., Fangel, J., Zhang, H., Felby, C., Willats, W.G. and Schjoerring, J.K. (2017). External nitrogen input affects pre- and post-harvest cell wall composition but not the enzymatic saccharification of wheat straw. – Biomass & Bioenergy.
Jensen, A.; Cabrera, Y; Hsieh, C.; Nielsen, J.; Ralph, J.; Felby C.(2017) 2D NMR characterization of lignin from wheat straw following dilute acid pretreatment. Accepted in Holzforschung.
Nielsen, J. B.; Jensen, A.; Madsen, L. R.; Larsen, F. H.; Felby, C.; Jensen, A. D., Non-catalytic direct liquefaction of biorefinery lignin by ethanol, ACS – Energy & Fuels.
Jensen, A.; Nielsen, J. B.; Schandel, C. B.; Felby, C.; Jensen, A. D., Non-catalytic supercritical alcohol solvolysis of biorefinery lignin: Investigation of solvent consumption, ACS – Energy & Fuels.
Mravec J, Kračun SK, Rydahl MG, Westereng B, Pontiggia D, De Lorenzo G, Domozych DS, Willats WGT () Oligogalacturonide-derived molecular probe demonstrates the dynamics of calcium-mediated pectin complexation in cell walls of tip-growing structures, Plant Journal.
Rasmussen, H; Sorensen H. R.; Tanner, D. and Meyer, A. S. (2017). New pentose dimers with bicyclic moieties from pretreated biomass. RSC Adv., 7, 5206-5213.
Rasmussen, H.; Tanner, D.; Sørensen, H. R and Meyer, A. S. (2017). New degradation compounds from lignocellulosic biomass pretreatment: routes for formation of potent oligophenolic enzyme inhibitors. Green Chem., 19, 464.
Parveen Deralia I- Suitability of hardwoods for bioconversion, Biofuels, Bioproducts and Biorefining.
Parveen Deralia II-Characterization of lignin and hemicellulose structures in hydrothermally pretreated poplar and wheat straw in relation to enzymatic saccharification efficiency, Bioresource Technology.
Parveen Deralia III- Chemical and physical characterisation of hydrothermally pretreated poplar and wheat straw, Bioresource Technology.
Mravec J, Kračun SK, Rydahl MG, Guo X, Pičmanová M, Růžička K, Willats WGT (2016) Click chemistry-based tracking reveals cell wall-located auxin binding sites in expanding cell, Nature Scientific Reports.
Mravec J, Guo X, Hansen AR, Schückel J, Kračun SK, Mikkelsen MD, Mouille G, Johansen IE, Ulvskov P Domozych DS, Willats WGT (2016) Multiple modes of cell wall dynamic associates with pea border cell maturation and release, Plant Physiology.
Rasmussen, H; Mogensen, K H.; Jeppesen, M D.; Sorensen, H. R; Meyer, A. S. (2016). 4-Hydroxybenzoic acid from hydrothermal pretreatment of oil palm empty fruit bunches - Its origin and influence on biomass conversion. Biomass and Bioenergy 93, p 209-216.
Zhou, G., Jensen, P. A., Le, D. M., Knudsen, N. O., and Jensen, A. D. (2016). Direct upgrading of fast pyrolysis lignin vapor over the HZSM-5 catalyst. Green Chemistry, 18(7), 1965-1975.
Zhou, G., Jensen, P. A., Le, D. M., Knudsen, N. O., and Jensen, A. D. (2016). Atmospheric hydrodeoxygenation of biomass fast pyrolysis vapor by MoO3. ACS Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering, 4(10), 5432-5440.
Mravec J, Kračun SK, Rydahl MG, Westereng B, Pontiggia D, De Lorenzo G, Domozych DS, Willats WGT (2015) Oligogalacturonide-derived molecular probe demonstrates the dynamics of calcium-mediated pectin complexation in cell walls of tip-growing structures, Plant Journal.
Bellucci A, Torp AM, Bruun S, Magid J, Andersen SB, Rasmussen SK. (2015) Association Mapping in Scandinavian Winter Wheat for Yield, Plant Height, and Traits Important for Second-Generation Bioethanol Production. Front. Plant Sci. 6: 1046. doi:10.3389/fpls.2015.01046
Lund CH, Bromley JR, Stenbæk A, Scheller HV, Sakuragi Y (2015). A reversible Renilla luciferase protein complementation assay for rapid identification of protein-protein interactions reveals the existence of an interaction network involved in xyloglucan biosynthesis in the plant Golgi apparatus. JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL BOTANY, 66 (1), pp 85-97.
Nafisi M, Stranne M, Fimognari L, Atwell S, Martens HJ, Pedas PR, Hansen SF, Nawrath C., Scheller HV, Kliebenstein DJ and Sakuragi Y. (2015). Acetylation of cell wall is required for structural integrity of the leaf surface and exerts a global impact on plant stress responses. Front. Plant Sci. 6:550. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2015.00550.
Nafisi, M. Fimognari L., Sakuragi Y. (2015). Interplays between the cell wall and phytohormones in interaction between plants and necrotrophic pathogens. Phytochemistry, 112, pp 63–71.
Joachim B. Nielsen, Anders Jensen, Claus Felby, John Nielsen, Niels O. Knudsen, Anker D. Jensen. (2015). “Can lignin be transformed to a liquid fuel?” (original title: Kan lignin omdannes til et flydende brændstof?), Dansk Kemi 96 1/2, 18-21.
Le, Duy Michael; Sorensen, Hanne R.; Knudsen, Niels Ole; et al. (2014). Biorefining of wheat straw: accounting for the distribution of mineral elements in pretreated biomass by an extended pretreatment-severity equation. BIOTECHNOLOGY FOR BIOFUELS Volume: 7, 141.
Le, Duy M.; Sorensen, Hanne R.; Knudsen, Niels Ole; et al. (2014) Implications of silica on biorefineries interactions with organic material and mineral elements in grasses. Biofuels, Bioproducts and Biorefining, Volume: 9, Issue: 1 Pp: 109-121.
Nafisi M, Stranne M, Zhang L, van Kan J, Sakurgai Y. (2014). The endo-arabinanase BcAra1 is a novel host-specific virulence factor of the nectrotic fungal phytopathogen Botrytis cinrea. Mol Plant Microbe Interact. doi.org/10.1094/MPMI-02-14-0036-R.
Rasmussen H.; Sorensen H.; Meyer A. (2014). Formation of degradation compounds from lignocellulosic biomass in the biorefinery: Sugar reaction mechanisms. Carbohydrate Research, 385, pp 45-57.
Mravec J, Kračun SK, Rydah MG, Westereng B, Clausen MH, Daugaard M, Van Cutsem P, Hjarvard De Fine Licht H, Hofte H, Malinovsky FG, Domozych D, Willats WGT (2014). Tracking developmentally regulated post-synthetic processing of homogalacturonan and chitin using reciprocal oligosaccharide probes. Development. 141, 4841-4850.
Chen, X., Vega-Sánchez, M.E., Verhertbruggen, Y., Chiniquy, D., Canlas, P.E., Fagerström, A., Prak, L., Christensen, U., Oikawa, A., Chern, M., Zuo, S., Lin, F., Auer, M., Willats, W.G.T., Bartley, L., Harholt, J., Scheller, H.V. and Ronald, P.C. (2013). Inactivation of OsIRX10 Leads to Decreased Xylan Content in Rice Culm Cell Walls and Improved Biomass Saccharification. Molecular Plant, 6 (2), pp: 570-573.
Oikawa A, Lund CH, Sakuragi Y, Scheller HV (2013) Golgi-localized enzyme complexes for plant cell wall biosynthesis.Trends Plant Sci. 18(1):49-58.
Yelle, DJ; Kaparaju, P; Hunt, CG; Hirth, K; Kim, H; Ralph, J; Felby, C. (2013) Two-Dimensional NMR Evidence for Cleavage of Lignin and Xylan Substituents in Wheat Straw Through Hydrothermal Pretreatment and Enzymatic Hydrolysis. BIOENERGY RESEARCH. Volume: 6 Issue: 1 Pages: 211-221 DOI: 10.1007/s12155-012-9247-6.
Bentsen, NS; Felby, C. Bioenergy, sustainability, and the second law. (2013). GLOBAL CHANGE BIOLOGY BIOENERGY Volume: 5 Issue: 1 Pages: 3-5 DOI: 10.1111/gcbb.12017.
Sitarz AK, Mikkelsen JD, Højrup P, Meyer AS, (2013). Identification of a laccase from Ganoderma lucidum CBS229.93 having potential for enhancing cellulase catalyzed lignocellulose degradation; Enz Microb Technol 53, pp. 378-385 (Part of this work done in a prior project).
Moller, I.E., Pettolino, F.A., Hart, C., Lampugnani, E.R., Willats, W.G.T., Bacic, A. (2012) Glycan Profiling of Plant Cell Wall Polymers using Microarrays. J. Vis. Exp. (70):e4238. DOI: 10.3791/4238.
Pedersen, H.L., Fangel, J.U., McCleary, B., Ruzanski, C., Rydahl, M.G., Ralet, M.C., Farkas, V., von Schantz, L, Marcos, S.E., Andersen, M.C., Field, R., Ohlin, M., Knox, J.P., Clausen, M.H., Willats, W.G. T. (2012) Versatile high-resolution oligosaccharide microarrays for plant glycobiology and cell wall research. Journal of Biol. Chem. 287(47):39429-38.
Mackenzie, A.K., Pope, P.B., Pedersen, H.L., Gupta, R., Morrison, M., Willats, W.G.T., Eijsink VG. (2012) Two SusD-like proteins encoded within a polysaccharide utilization locus of an uncultured ruminant Bacteroidetes phylotype bind strongly to cellulose. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 78(16), 5935-5937.
Koutaniemi, S., Guillon, F., Tranquet, O., Bouchet, B., Tuomainen, P., Virkki, L., Petersen, H.L., Willats, W.G.T., Saulnier, L., Tenkanen, M. (2012) Substituent-specific antibody against glucuronoxylan reveals close association of glucuronic acid and acetyl substituents and distinct labeling patterns in tree species. Planta 236(2), 739-751.
Rosgaard L, de Porcellinis AJ, Jacobsen JH, Frigaard NU, Sakuragi Y. (2012) Bioengineering of carbon fixation, biofuels, and biochemicals in cyanobacteria and plants. J Biotechnol. 2012, 162(1):134-147.
Søgaard C, Stenbæk A, Bernard S, Hadi M, Driouich A, Scheller HV, Sakuragi Y. (2012) GO-PROMTO illuminates protein membrane topologies of glycan biosynthetic enzymes in the Golgi apparatus of living tissues. PLoS One. 7(2):e31324.
Harholt J, Jensen JK, Verhertbruggen Y, Søgaard C, Bernard S, Nafisi M, Poulsen CP, Geshi N, Sakuragi Y, Driouich A, Knox JP, Scheller HV. (2012) ARAD proteins associated with pectic Arabinan biosynthesis form complexes when transiently overexpressed in planta. Planta. 236(1):115-28.
Rautengarten C, Ebert B, Ouellet M, Nafisi M, Baidoo EE, Benke P, Stranne M, Mukhopadhyay A, Keasling JD, Sakuragi Y, Scheller HV. (2012). Arabidopsis Deficient in Cutin Ferulate encodes a transferase required for feruloylation of ω-hydroxy fatty acids in cutin polyester. Plant Physiol. 158(2):654-65.
Christian Bukh, Pia Haugaard Nord-Larsen, Søren K. Rasmussen (2012). Phylogeny and enzyme activity of the cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase gene family in Brachypodium distachyon. Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol. 63, No. 2, pp. 695–709.
Global Biofuel Potentials for Marine Engines, Report by Poÿry, 18 September, 2012.
The project was funded by:
The project was partly funded by the Danish National Advanced Technology Foundation and had a total budget of 112 MDKK.
Project: B21st - Biomass for the 21st Century
The partners involved: A.P. Moller Maersk, DONG Energy, Haldor Topsoe, MAN Diesel & Turbo, Novozymes, Technical University of Denmark and University of Copenhagen.